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Oil, some basic advice.

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When it comes to choosing oil for your car, this post may seem like going back to basics but we at www.opieoils.co.uk are constantly surprised by the amount of people who do not understand what is written on a bottle of oil and therefore have no idea of what they are buying or using.

 

This article should help most car owners as a basic guide, for more detailed information you can always contact us at www.opieoils.co.uk and will be happy to help you.

 

So, to be blunt about the subject, if a bottle of oil does not contain the following basic information then DO NOT buy it look for something that does!

 

1) The purpose for which it is intended (i.e. Motor oil, Gear oil, ATF etc)

 

2) The viscosity (i.e. 10w-40, 5w-30 etc for Motor oils and 80w-90, 75w-90 etc for Gear oils)

 

3) The specifications that it meets (should contain API and/or ACEA ratings)

 

4) The OEM Approvals that it carries and the codes (i.e. MB229.5, VW504.00, FORD 913A, BMW LL04 etc)

 

Ignore the marketing blurb on the label it is in many cases meaningless and we will explain later what statements you should treat with some skepticism.

 

So, what does the above information mean and why is it important?

 

THE BASICS

 

All oils are intended for an application and in general are not interchangeable. You would not for example put an Automatic Transmission Oil or a Gear Oil in your engine! It is important to know what the oils intended purpose is.

 

VISCOSITY

 

Most oils on the shelves today are “Multigrades”, which simply means that the oil falls into 2 viscosity grades (i.e. 10w-40 etc)

 

Multigrades were first developed some 50 years ago to avoid the old routine of using a thin oil in winter and a thicker oil in the summer.

 

In a 10w-40 for example the 10w bit (W = winter, not weight or watt or anything else for that matter) simply means that the oil must have a certain maximum viscosity/flow at low temperature.

 

The lower the “W” number the better the oils cold temperature/cold start performance. I.E. 5w is better than 10w etc

 

The 40 in a 10w-40 simply means that the oil must fall within certain viscosity limits at 100 degC. This is a fixed limit and all oils that end in 40 must achieve these limits.

 

Once again the lower the number the thinner the oil, a 30 oil is thinner than a 40 oil at 100 degC etc. Your handbook will specify whether a 30, 40 or 50 etc is required.

 

 

SPECIFICATIONS

 

Specifications are important as these indicate the performance of an oil and whether it has met or passed the latest tests or whether the formulation is effectively obsolete or out of date.

 

There are two specifications that you should look for on any oil bottle and these are API (American Petroleum Institute) and ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Europeens d’Automobiles) all good oils should contain both of these and an understanding of what they mean is important.

 

API

 

This is the more basic of the two specs as it is split (for passenger cars) into two catagories.

 

S = Petrol and C = Diesel, most oils carry both petrol (S) and diesel © specifications.

 

The following table shows how up to date the specifications the oil are:

 

PETROL

 

SG - Introduced 1989 has much more active dispersant to combat black sludge.

 

SH - Introduced 1993 has same engine tests as SG, but includes phosphorus limit 0.12%, together with control of foam, volatility and shear stability.

 

SJ - Introduced 1996 has the same engine tests as SG/SH, but phosphorus limit 0.10% together with variation on volatility limits

 

SL - Introduced 2001, all new engine tests reflective of modern engine designs meeting current emissions standards

 

SM - Introduced November 2004, improved oxidation resistance, deposit protection and wear protection, also better low temperature performance over the life of the oil compared to previous categories.

 

Note:

 

All specifications prior to SL are now obsolete and although suitable for some older vehicles are more than 10 years old and do not provide the same level of performance or protection as the more up to date SL and SM specifications, so if you’ve a recent model, don’t bother.

 

DIESEL

 

CD - Introduced 1955, international standard for turbo diesel engine oils for many years, uses single cylinder test engine only

 

CE - Introduced 1984, improved control of oil consumption, oil thickening, piston deposits and wear, uses additional multi cylinder test engines

 

CF4 - Introduced 1990, further improvements in control of oil consumption and piston deposits, uses low emission test engine

 

CF - Introduced 1994, modernised version of CD, reverts to single cylinder low emission test engine. Intended for certain indirect injection engines

 

CF2 - Introduced 1994, defines effective control of cylinder deposits and ring face scuffing, intended for 2 stroke diesel engines

 

CG4 - Introduced 1994, development of CF4 giving improved control of piston deposits, wear, oxidation stability and soot entrainment. Uses low sulphur diesel fuel in engine tests

 

CH4 - Introduced 1998, development of CG4, giving further improvements in control of soot related wear and piston deposits, uses more comprehensive engine test program to include low and high sulphur fuels

 

CI4 Introduced 2002, developed to meet 2004 emission standards, may be used where EGR ( exhaust gas recirculation ) systems are fitted and with fuel containing up to 0.5 % sulphur. May be used where API CD, CE, CF4, CG4 and CH4 oils are specified.

 

Note:

All specifications prior to CH4 are now obsolete and although suitable for some older vehicles are more than 10 years old and do not provide the same level of performance or protection as the more up to date CH4 & CI4 specifications.

 

If you want a better more up to date oil specification then look for SL, SM, CH4, CI4

 

ACEA

 

This is the European equivalent of API (US) and is more specific in what the performance of the oil actually is. A = Petrol, B = Diesel and C = Catalyst compatible or low SAPS (Sulphated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulphur). These specs are more commonly found on European oils and in many respects are more important than API for European Manufactured cars.

 

Unlike API the ACEA specs are split into performance/application catagories as follows:

 

A1 Fuel economy petrol

A2 Standard performance level (now obsolete)

A3 High performance and/or extended drain

A4 Reserved for future use in certain direct injection engines

A5 Combines A1 fuel economy with A3 performance

 

B1 Fuel economy diesel

B2 Standard performance level (now obsolete)

B3 High performance and/or extended drain

B4 For direct injection car diesel engines

B5 Combines B1 fuel economy with B3/B4 performance

 

C1-04 Petrol and Light duty Diesel engines, based on A5/B5-04 low SAPS, two way catalyst compatible.

C2-04 Petrol and light duty Diesel engines, based on A5/B5-04 mid SAPS, two way catalyst compatible.

C3-04 Petrol and light duty Diesel engines, based on A5/B5-04 mid SAPS, two way catalyst compatible, higher performance levels due to higher HTHS.

 

Note: SAPS = Sulphated Ash, Phosphorous and Sulphur.

 

Put simply, A3/B3, A5/B5 and C3 oils are the better quality, stay in grade performance oils.

 

APPROVALS

 

Many oils mention various Car Manufacturers on the bottle, the most common in the UK being VW, MB, BMW, Ford or Vauxhall but do not be misled into thinking that you are buying top quality oil because of this.

 

Oil Companies send their oils to OEM’s for approval however some older specs are easily achieved and can be done so with the cheapest of mineral oils. Newer specifications are always more up to date and better quality/performance than the older ones.

 

Some of the older OEM specifications are listed here and depending on the performance level of your car are best ignored if you are looking for a quality high performance oil:

 

VW – 500.00, 501.00 and 505.00

 

Later specs like 503.00, 503.01, 506.00 are better performing more up to date oils but as far as VW is concerned even these have now been superseded by the latest VW504.00 and VW507.00 specifications.

 

MB – 229.1, 229.30

 

Later specs like 229.31, 229.5, and 229.51 are better performing more up to date oils.

 

BMW – LL98

 

Later specs like LL01 and the latest LL04 oils are better performing more up to date.

 

 

FINALLY

 

Above is the most accurate guidance we can give without going into too much depth however there is one final piece of advice regarding labelling.

 

Certain statements are made on labels that are meaningless and just marketing hype; here are a few to avoid!

 

Recommended for use where……………

 

May be used where the following specifications apply……………

 

Approved by………………………..(but with no qualification or specification)

 

Recommended/Approved by (some famous person, these endorsements are paid for)

 

Racing/Track formula (but with no supporting evidence)

 

Also be wary of statements like “synthetic blend” if you are looking for a fully synthetic oil as this will merely be a semi-synthetic.

 

Like everything in life, you get what you pay for. The cheaper the oil the cheaper the ingredients, lower the performance levels and older the specs it meets so beware!

 

Cheers

 

Guy

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Hi Guy, interesting reading

What oil would you put into your Corrado VR6 (if you have one :shrug: )?

Cheers

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I'd go with one of the top end ester oils in a 5w-40 if it was standard, if it was heavily modded and driven hard, a 10w-50.

 

Cheers

 

Guy

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have stickied this as it seems to have most of the technical information that is relevant to oil discussions

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A very useful article, plenty of information! But just a question, you say that the lower the W number the better it is for the engine, is there any benefits or reason for going for a 10w as opposed to going for the 5w?

 

Presumably if your engine runs hotter you would be better going for a higher grade oil? is there any margin for what you should be running in terms of temperature, like 70-80degrees is a 30, 80-100degrees is a 40? etc?

 

My apologies if that is a really dumb question!

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It's all down to the engine.

 

If it's not particularly tight and you get piston slap when cold, a 10w or 15w helps.

 

Another time when a thicker cold oil is an advantage is when the engine needs a thicker hot oil. If the viscosity gap is too large, the oil isn't very stable and ends up breaking down to a different grade fairly quickly. Grades like 0w-50 and 5w-50 are particularly bad for it and end up as a 5w-40 or 10w-40 in a short space of time. It's often best just to start with a good 5w-40 in the first place.

 

The temps and oil is suitable for has a lot to do with the quality of the oil. The top end ester 5w-40s are good for up to about 130C, but if you get a basic semi synthetic one, the oil will degrade at a lower temperature. You want to use the right grade for the engine.

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okay what is the best for 108000 miles vr6 then? as in the numbers?

and also im not sure on the current oil so is it best to do a full oil change rather then mixing?

 

cheers

will

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Guy, Would you say 10W-50 or 15W-50 would be better for a slightly (blue) smokey engine than using 10W-40?

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Go for a synthetic 10w-40. The blue smoke is coming from mineral oil being burned off. Synthetics are better at resisting being burned.

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Go for a synthetic 10w-40. The blue smoke is coming from mineral oil being burned off. Synthetics are better at resisting being burned.

 

Is there any particular one you'd recommend?

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The temps and oil is suitable for has a lot to do with the quality of the oil. The top end ester 5w-40s are good for up to about 130C, but if you get a basic semi synthetic one, the oil will degrade at a lower temperature. You want to use the right grade for the engine.

 

130'C??

It was my understanding that a good ester based synthetic would handle much more than 130'C, more like 150'C without degradation, thats certainly what Mobil would have you believe...

Corrado's or the VR6 engine in general have never been spec'd to run fully synth from VW and yet most VR's run oil temps well in excess of 120'C in normal use let alone when driven on track - and all this on semi synthetic oil.

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One last question, does it use much oil?

 

Cheers

 

Guy

 

It has been doing yes... 3 litres in 700 miles

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The temps and oil is suitable for has a lot to do with the quality of the oil. The top end ester 5w-40s are good for up to about 130C, but if you get a basic semi synthetic one, the oil will degrade at a lower temperature. You want to use the right grade for the engine.

 

130'C??

It was my understanding that a good ester based synthetic would handle much more than 130'C, more like 150'C without degradation, thats certainly what Mobil would have you believe...

Corrado's or the VR6 engine in general have never been spec'd to run fully synth from VW and yet most VR's run oil temps well in excess of 120'C in normal use let alone when driven on track - and all this on semi synthetic oil.

 

Semis do not handle temps as well as synthetics and a 10w-40 semi is going to breakdown very quickly at 120C. Yes, ester synthetics can be fine at much higher temps than 130C, but it depends what grade you decide to use. To be safe, we'd go for a 5w-40 at up to 130C, 10w-50 at up to 150C and 10w-60 for up to 170C. Those are all fairly conservative figures, you could probably go a bit higher, but we try to give recommendations that are safe as the oil is for someone elses engines, not our own.

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One last question, does it use much oil?

 

Cheers

 

Guy

 

It has been doing yes... 3 litres in 700 miles

 

 

 

Wow, that's a huge amount and it makes me think there is something really wrong that no oil is going to sort out

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One last question, does it use much oil?

 

Cheers

 

Guy

 

It has been doing yes... 3 litres in 700 miles

 

 

 

Wow, that's a huge amount and it makes me think there is something really wrong that no oil is going to sort out

 

It only seems to burn blue smoke when the engine is cold, and then it's often fine once up to temp.

 

A couple of people I know had similar problems and the engine stopped using oil when they put in *W-50.

 

 

I think it is a combination of things causing it though... overfuelling and perhaps piston rings. (It's got a refurbished head on though so it's not the valve stem seals)

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It's got a refurbished head on though so it's not the valve stem seals

 

You sure they did a good job? :tongue:[/quote:2ws6k8r3]

 

It was bought as a "refurbished" head, but it wasn't refurbished enough, so Billcor got it refurbed again, and I've got the receipt for the work

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So looking at my previous posts I need some thicker oil to prolong the life of my dying vr, do you do discounts for forum members? VR6 oiling 1 and 6, new plugs only lasting a week with current GSF Semi synth in...

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